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Citing Sources: CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style)

NCC Library and Learning Center Chicago Manual of Style Handout

The Chicago Manual of Style

Find the complete Chicago Manual of Style in the library collection.

Basics of Chicago Citation

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is published by the University of Chicago Press and is often used in business, history, fine arts, and the humanities. There are two different ways to use CMOS, however we will be focusing on the more popular format called Notes and Bibliography. This style requires either footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography at the end of the paper. Both footnotes and endnotes are acceptable. A version of CMOS known as Turabian may also be accepted for student papers. Please check with your instructor for their preference.

CMOS also has specific rules related to capitalization, abbreviations, the appearance of dates, and punctuation in citations that are unique to this style and help distinguish it from others.

 

Core Elements

Depending on the source type (book, journal, etc.) your bibliography entry and footnote/endnote are composed of these major elements. There are additional elements that may be required based on the source type. They are assembled in a specific order and followed by specific punctuation:

  1. Author
  2. Title of source
  3. Publisher
  4. Publication date
  5. DOI

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is an identifier assigned by the publisher that provides a persistent link to the online source. Scholarly journals accessed online are often assigned with a DOI number. If a DOI is available, use it at the end of the citation.

Working with this template and the information indicated on your source, you should be able to create an accurate Bibliography entry for almost any source you use. 

Endnote/Footnote

Citing a Book with One Author

The shortened citation is used when citing your source after the first use (which will need the full citation).

Note (citation):

[new footnote number]. Richard J. Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, (New York: Penguin Group, 2004), 95.

Shortened citation in a following footnote:

[new footnote number]. Evans, Third Reich, 102.

Citing a Book with 2 Authors

Note (citation):

[new footnote number]. William Kerrigan and Gordon Braden, The Idea of the Renaissance, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1989), 40.

Shortened citation in a following footnote:

[new footnote number]. Kerrigan and Braden, Idea of Renaissance, 46.

Citing Online Journal Articles with a DOI or Stable URL

Note (citation):

[new footnote number]. James C. Van Hook, “Politics in Cold War Germany,” German Politics & Society 25, no. 2 (Summer 2007), 104, https://doi.org/10.3167/gps.2007.250207.

Shortened citation in a following footnote:

[new footnote number]. Van Hook, “Cold War Germany,” 108

Citing Online Journal Articles without a DOI or Stable URL

Note (citation):

[new footnote number]. Mark Grimsley, "A More Civil War: How the Union Waged a Just War," The Journal of American History 104, no. 3 (12, 2017): 768. ProQuest.

Shortened citation in a following footnote:

[new footnote number]. Grimsley, “Civil War,” 768.

Bibliography

Citing a Book with One Author

Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Group, 2004.

Citing a Book with 2 Authors

Kerrigan, William and Gordon Braden, The Idea of the Renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1989.

Citing Online Journal Articles with a DOI

Van Hook, James C. “Politics in Cold War Germany.” German Politics & Society 25, no. 2 (Summer 2007): 104-16. https://doi.org/10.3167/gps.2007.250207.

Citing Online Journal Articles without a DOI or Stable URL

Grimsley, Mark. "A More Civil War: How the Union Waged a Just War." The Journal of American History 104, no. 3 (12, 2017): 768. ProQuest.