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DMSG: Diagnostic Medical Sonography

APA format

Citing Sources: APA

APA Style

Times New Roman font in 12 point.

One inch margins on all sides of the page.

Double-space the paper.

Indent the first line of each paragraph one-half inch from the left margin.

Your paper should have a title page, see blue handout for APA Style for more information.

All pages should be numbered.

Your references should be on a separate page with the heading References.


 APA Style: References

Core Elements for Journal articles

Core Elements for Books

Core Elements for Electronic Sources




Year of Publication

Year of Publication

Date of Publication

Article Title

Title of Book

Title of page

Journal Title

Publisher Name

Website name

Volume & issue information

Page numbers

Retrieval Information (DOI or URL)



Articles from Journals found in databases: EBSCO Discovery Service or EBSCOhost, PubMed Central

Author’s Last Name, Initial of First Name, Middle Initial. (Publication Date). Title of

article. Title of Journal, volume(issue),page range. https.//doi OR webaddress/permalink/link

EBSCO and EBSCOHost Example:

Post, P. B., Grybush, A. L., Elmadani, A., & Lockhart, C. E. (2020). Fostering resilience in          classrooms through child–teacher relationship training. International Journal of Play   Therapy, 29(1), 9–19.

PubMed Central Example:

Herzallah, H. K., Antonisamy, B. R., Shafee, M. H., & Al-Otaibi, S. T. (2019). Temporal trends in          the incidence and demographics of cancers, communicable diseases, and      noncommunicable diseases in Saudi Arabia over the last decade. Saudi Medical Journal,   40(3), 277–286.

Websites and sources on websites

  • Page from a website

Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of document. Website. Electronic address

  • Article from Online Journal (found on the Internet, not a library database)

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume Number(Issue Number), pages if available. DOI. (If the DOI is not available, use the URL.)


Author’s Last Name, Initial of First Name, Middle Initial. (Publication Date). Title of

book. Publisher.


Foxman, A. H. & Wolf, C. (2013). Viral hate: Containing its spread on the Internet.

Palgrave Macmillan.


Author(s) or Editor(s)

FORMAT Author: Last Name, Initial of First Name. Middle Initial.     Ex: Loomis, E. N.

FORMAT Editor: Last name, Initial of First Name. Middle Initial. (Ed.).

FORMAT Editors: Last name, Initial of First Name. Middle Initial. & Last name, Initial of

First Name. Middle Initial. (Eds).  Ex: Loomis, E. N. & Davidson, S. (Eds.)

General Rules for Multiple Authors can be found on page 4 of the APA Citation Handout

All journal articles will only have authors.

Books can have authors or editors.  Generally, the Ed. designation will appear when there are editors.

Websites can have authors that are companies or organizations.  Not all websites have authors.

Titles of Books,  Articles, Journals, Websites, or Page from a Website

Type of Source



Book title

Only the first word, proper nouns and acronyms


Article title (Journals)

Only the first word, proper nouns and acronyms


Journal titles

All major words


Page from a website

Only the first word, proper nouns and acronyms


Website title

All major words


(Publication date)

FORMAT: (year, month day of month)  in parentheses

*May only have a year

Example: (2020, November 16)

Publisher: Books ONLY

Books: this information is usually on the first page of the book with the title

Example: Wiley

Volume, Issue, and page number Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers

FORMAT: volume(issue number), page numbers.      

Volume is in italics

Example: 100(19), 26-42.

Electronic address for sources found in a database or online

DOI for the article, usually displayed in the citation tool for each database.

May also be found in the web address in the address bar.


PMC: doi: 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11181